Asynchronous USB 2 DACs

USB Audio class 1 is limited to 24 bits/ 96 kHz maximum.

This is what fits into USB Full Speed mode so 12 MHz (USB 1).

To play higher sample rates the High Speed mode (USB 2, 480 MHz) is needed.


From mid-2010 on both OSX and Linux supports USB audio class 2 natively.

If the DAC is USB audio class 2 compliant it will play up to 32/384 on these systems without the need to install additional drivers.

Microsoft doesn't have a native mode USB Audio class 2 driver. You need to install a third party Class 2 Audio driver at the PC side.


All DACs listed in this section requires USB 2 (High Speed).

The fact that they do need USB 2 (High Speed) does not necessarily imply they are also USB audio class 2 compliant.

Using High Speed might have an unexpected consequence.

Some audiophile USB cables are of such a low build quality that they will fail you the moment you switch to high speed mode.

The higher band width simply requires a digital cable build to close tolerances.


A lot of USB audio class 2 compliant DACs use the XMOS chipset.

Sagittarius has compiled an overview.


Traditionally a DAC has a digital in and a analog out.
Today a lot of them also have volume control, line out and headphone out.
Basically a pre-amp with digital inputs and as it is a pre-amp sometimes even an analog input too.


The information below is as supplied by the manufacturer's website.

Abbingdon Music Research - Digital Processor-777 €3.600


24/192kHz Asynchronous USB Audio Class 2.0 (XMOS)

Thermionic Electron Valves amplification stage:
2 x 6H1n-EV / 1 x 6H11P fitted
ECC88, E88CC, 7308, Cca, 6DJ8, 6922, 6H23n-EV optional
Total Harmonic Dist. + Noise (THD+N): <0.3%
Dynamic range:
>90 dB
Digital Audio Inputs: 2 x XLR/BNC with HD Valve Digital Input technology
2 x RCA/Toslink SPDIF Interface
1 x 24/192 Asynchronous USB


Aesthetix Pandora DAC USD 5,000.-


  • Card-based DAC with three digital input slots.
  • AES/EBU, RCA Coax, Toslink standard on digital input 1 slot.
  • USB standard on digital input 2 slot.
  • USB capable of class 1 audio (96KHz, 24bit) and class 2 audio (192KHz, 24bit).
  • 2nd USB input optional.
  • Asynchronous USB, (Streamlength ™)
  • DSP based digital section using Motorola DSP56362 for digital filters.
  • DAC section based on Burr-Brown PCM1792A.
  • Analog section featuring four vacuum tubes in differential configuration.
  • Zero global feedback.
  • Balanced and single-ended outputs.
  • Volume control optional, allows DAC to drive a power amplifier directly. Switched resistor design.
  • Remote control of all functions.
  • Multiple stainless steel faraday cages isolate critical digital, analog and power supply sections.
  • Two transformers, one for digital circuits and one for analog circuits.
  • All aluminum chassis construction.
  • RS232 control.
  • 12v trigger.
  • Unit Weight: 35 Lbs
  • Dimensions: 18" width x 4 3/8" height x 18" depth


Pre-amp with analog, USB, Toslink and SPDIF input.

Analog line- and headphone out

Digital out (Toslink)


32-bit Texas Instruments PCM1795 DAC

XMOS-based asynchronous USB input 24-bit/192kHz, driver for Win.

1/8" analog input coupled to a AKM AK5386 AD converter (24-bit/96kHz) and the Toslink output allowing for digitizing analog input.


USB input coupled with Toslink output ( USB to SPDIF conversion)


Line output level:

2Vrms (unbalanced output)

THD: less than 0.01% at 1 kHz

Frequency response: 20 Hz/ 20kHz +-0.3dB


Headphones output:

6.35mm phone jack, 3.5mm phone jack

Supported headphone impedance: 16 ~600Ω

Output level: Max 100mW (32Ω loaded)

THD: less than 0.01% at 1 kHz, 32Ω loaded, 100mW

Frequency response: 20 Hz/ 20kHz +-0.3dB (32Ω loaded, 100mW)

Anedio D2 DAC US$1470

Pre-amp / DAC with various digital inputs and headphone out.

Asynchronous USB using the XMOS receiver, Thesycon driver for Win.



USB: 24 bits, 44.1K, 48K, 88.2K, 96K, 176.4K, 192KHz
SPDIF 75-ohm BNC + RCA: 24 bits, 44.1K, 48K, 88.2K, 96K, 176.4K, 192KHz
SPDIF 75-ohm RCA: 24 bits, 44.1K, 48K, 88.2K, 96K, 176.4K, 192KHz
Tosllink Optical: 24 bits, 44.1K, 48K, 88.2K, 96KHz






April Music Eximus DP1 US$ 2,295

DAC/Pre/Headphone amp



Digital Input:

1 USB 2.0 + driver for Win

USB receiver: XMOS

1 I2S 100 Ohms TTL Level,

2 SPDIF coax 75 Ohms,

1 AES/EBU, 110 Ohms,

1 Toslink

Analog Input: 1 RCA, 1 MINI JACK

Analog Output: 1 RCA, 1 XLR, 1 Headphone


Receiver: Cirris Logic C58416

ASRC: TI SRC4192 (can be bypassed)


aqua acoustic quality La Scala MKII D/A Converter €4890

R2R ladder DAC with 4 Burr-Brown PCM -1704K arrayed in a true differential dual mono configuration.

ECC81 tube

THD + N <0.1% 1KHz -20dB


• Input:
- etherCON RJ45 AQlink (I2S serial bus) - 24 bit / 384 KHz
- AES/EBU balanced 110 ohm  -  24 bit / 192 KHz
- BNC coax (S/PDIF) 75 ohm  -  24 bit / 192 KHz
- RCA coax (S/PDIF) 75 ohm  -  24 bit / 192 KHz
- USB port  -  24 bit / 192 KHz
- AT&T (ST Fiber) -  24 bit / 192 KHz (optional)

• Analog output:
- RCA single-ended
- XLR balanced symmetrical

Added 1/2014

Arcam D33

Analogue Audio Output

  • Conversion 2x Burr Brown 24-bit 192kHz Advanced Segment Delta-Sigma
  • Signal to noise ratio > 110dB CCIR (unweighted)
  • Harmonic distortion (1kHz) 0.0008% (20Hz — 20kHz, unweighted)
  • Frequency response (+0.1dB, -0.5dB) 10Hz–20kHz
  • Filtering User selectable, fast or slow roll-off
  • Output level (0dB) 2.2Vrms
  • Output impedance 47Ω
  • Minimum load 5kΩ

Digital interfaces

  • USB Class 1 electrically-isolated USB 1.1
  • Class 2 USB 2.0 High Speed (480 Mbit/s)
  • AES/EBU Up to 192kHz sample rate
  • Coaxial S/PDIF x 2 Up to 192kHz sample rate
  • Optical S/PDIF (TOSLINK) x 2 Up to 96kHz sample rate
  • Computer compatibility
  • PC Windows 7, Vista & XP (driver required for 24/192 material)
  • MAC OSX (no driver required)


  • Dimensions W433 x D370 x H110mm
  • Weight 6.2kg nett/10.0kg packed
  • Power consumption 30W maximum
  • Analogue output connection RCA Phono x 2, Balanced XLR x2

Remote control.

Price: £2000

Asus Xonar Essence One € 400,-

Chipset Audio Processor :C-Media CM6631 High-Definition Sound Processor
Sample Rate and Resolution 44.1K/48K/88.2K/96K/176.4K/192KHz @ 16bit/24bit
S/PDIF Digital Input :
44.1K/48K/96K/192KHz @ 16bit/24bit
ASIO 2.2 Driver Support :
I/O Ports Analog Output Jack :
2 x 3.5mm RCA jack
1 x 6.3mm RCA jack
2 x Balanced Output (XLR)
2 x Digital S/PDIF Input : 1 x Coaxial, 1 x Toslink
1 x USB Input


ATOLL DAC200 €1500

Pre-amp with various digital inputs and headphone out

  • 1 AES/EBU
  • 2 SPDIF coaxi
  • 3 SPDIF optical
  • 1 USB : 24bits/192kHz (XMOS, driver for Win)
  • 1 wireless dongle


  • 1 coax
  • 1 optical
  • 1 RCA
  • 1 XLR
  • 1 headphone

DAC: BURR BROWN PCM1792 (24 bits/192 kHz)

Audio Research DAC8 $4,995.00

  • Sample Rate measuring function
  • The DAC8 employs four 24-bit D/A converters.  Each channel uses dual 24-bit D/A converters running in mono mode to lower the noise floor and increase the dynamic range.
  • Dual Master Oscillators:  When the time base of any DAC is not an integer multiple of the digital music sample rate, decoding and quantization errors occur.  Consequently, the DAC8 uses two low jitter Master Oscillators; one for 44.1, 88.2 & 176.4kHz sample rates and the other for 48, 96 & 192 kHz sample rates.  The DAC8 automatically selects the correct Master Oscillator the instant digital music is detected at the selected input.
  • All inputs are galvanically isolated from the source to reduce or eliminate noise and/or jitter from entering the DAC8.
  • The Analog amplifiers in the DAC8 have received the same attention to detail as the digital section.  Each channel of the DAC8 uses a true direct-coupled differential amplifier with a bandwidth in excess of 90kHz.
  • 24/192 S/PDIF inputs (RCA, BNC, AES/EBU and Toslink) and 24/192 USB.
  • By virtue of all of the above points and our proprietary software drivers, intrinsic jitter has been reduced to less than 10ps.

AURALiC ARK MX+ € 1799


USB 2.0 (44.1KHz-192KHz, up to 32Bit), driver for Win, ASIO
S/PDIF (44.1KHz-192KHz up to 24Bit)


Balanced analog output, 4Vrms
Single-ended analog output, 2Vrms
AES/EBU Digital Output


Frequency response: DC - 20KHz, +/- 0.02 dB
Signal/Noise: 118 dB, 20Hz-20KHz, A-weighted
THD+N: <0.0005%, 20Hz-20KHz at 0dBFS
Dynamic range: 124dB, 20Hz-20KHz, A-weighted


Texas Instruments SRC4392 upsampler with two crystal clocks.


AURALiC Vega US$ 3499 / € 3299

The purpose of Femto master clock is to give DAC an ultimate clock with extremely low jitter and phase noise. It utilizes aerospace grade crystal oscillator, ultra low noise linear power supply and temperature compensation technology to generate master clock with extremely low jitter performance at 82 femtoseconds(0.082 picoseconds). What's more important, the phase noise which affect sound quality a lot has been dramatically reduced to -168dBc/Hz.

Source: technical specs AURALiC Vega


Frequency Response: 20 - 20KHz, +/- 0.1dB*
Signal/Noise:126dB, 20Hz-20KHz, A-weighted
THD+N:<0.0003%, 20Hz-20KHz at 0dBFS
Dynamic Range:130dB, 20Hz-20KHz, A-weighted

Digital Inputs
1*USB 2.0 buffered by ActiveUSB™

Analog Outputs
1*Balanced(output impedance 2.2ohm)
1*Single-ended(output impedance 50ohm)

Supported Digital Formats
All PCM from 44.1KS/s to 384KS/s in 32Bit (352.8KS/s and 384KS/s USB only)
DSD64( 2.8224MHz) and DSD128(5.6448MHz) - 'DoP V1.1' standard, USB only


My listening impression can be found here


AURALiC Gemini 2000 US$1995

DAC with a 2 Watt class A headphone amp.

Output: 6.3mm jack / 4-pin XLR.





3.5 mm analog


Integrated SDXC card reader

File format: PCM 24/384, DSD128

Ayre QB-9 USD 2750.-

  • Asynchronous USB (Streamlength ™)
  • 16/24 bit/192 kHz.
  • TheSycon USB Audio class 2 driver for Windows
  • XMOS USB audio class 2 converter
  • Minimum phase digital filter.
  • Single-pass 16x oversampling.
  • zero-feedback, fully-balanced discrete circuitry.
  • Equilock circuitry for active gain devices.
  • Ayre Conditioner (patent pending) power-line RFI filter.
  • AyreLink communication system.

Frequency Response: DC - 20 kHz, ± 0.25 dB

Signal/Noise: 110 dB (unweighted)

Output Level: 4 volts balanced, 2 volts single-ended


The USB receiver section is isolated from the
rest of the audio circuitry with high-speed opto-isolators. This means that the RFI generated by the multitude of clocks operating inside the PC and its noise-generating switching power supply is completely kept out of one’s music system.

Ayre White paper

Benchmark DAC2 HGC US$ 1995

DAC with volume control, line and headphone out.

DSD over USB ( DoP 1.0)

Supports USB Audio 1 & 2. Driver for Win.

2x4 32-bit DACs

Output: RCA/XLR

Bladelius USB DAC US$ 695

  • Accepts data up to 24 bit/192 kHz
  • USB powered
  • Asynchronous USB transfer, re-clocking with a fixed low jitter crystal clock
  • Galvanic isolation between USB and the analog circuits,
  • Super low noise power supply with multistage regulation and filtering
  • For low out of band noise we use low order modulator
  • Digital filter with minimum phase
  • The analog output stage is a high performance stage with high drive capability
  • Distortion < 0.001%
  • Thd Noise -126db
  • Output Level 2.5v @0db


B.M.C. DAC1 Pre HiRes USBII - € 3.248

DAC with preamp.

Asynchronous USB (24/192) with driver for Win.



B.M.C. PureDAC US$ 1600

Headphone/pre-amp DAC with separate volume controls for the headphone and line outputs.


USB PCM: 16...32bit; 44.1, 48, 88.2, 96, 176.4, 192, 352.8, 384kHz


AES/EBU, Toslink and coax (RCA): 44.1, 48, 96 kHz



RCA/XLR analog outputs.


6.3mm 100 Ω

XLR (balanced) <1 Ω


Thesycon USB audio driver for Windows.

ASIO driver for Windows

Linux and Mac compatible


Added 1/2014

Bricasti Design M1 DAC $8,995

9 Linear Phase filters and 6 Minimum Phase Filters

Dynamic Range: >120dB A-Weighted
THD+N @ 1k: .0006% @ 0dbfs / .0004% @-30dbfs

Added 1/2014

Bryston BDA 2 US$ 2395,-

• Dual 192K/32Bit AKM DAC’s
• Independent dual power Supplies
• Discrete Class A analog output stage
• Selectable synchronous upsampling (176.4K/192K)
• Independent analog and digital signal paths
• Inputs: 192/24 USB (1, asynchronous), COAX (2), OPTICAL (2), AES-EBU (1) BNC (2)
• Fully differential balanced XLR and unbalanced RCA stereo outputs
• Transformer coupled SPDIF and AES EBU digital inputs
• SPDIF COAX bypass loop output

Burson Conductor $1.850

Headphone amplifier/ Pre amplifier / DAC


1 x USB Connection
1 x Coaxial RCA (Support up to 24bit @ 192Khz)
1 x Toslink / SPDIF (Support up to 24bit @ 192Khz)
2 x RCA line level input


1 x headphone jacks 6.35mm
1 x RCA Pre Amp output
1 x RCA DAC direct line out


DAC Specification

Channel Separation: 140 dB @ 1KHz, 130 dB @ 20KHz
THD+N: 0.0005% @ 1KHz, 0dBFS
COAX & Toslink / SPDIF : 32 bits / 44.1K, 48K, 88.2K, 96K, 176.4K, 192KHz


USB Specification

Tenor TE8802
OS Requirement: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Mac OS X
USB : 24 bits / 44.1K, 48K, 88.2K, 96K, 176.4K, 192KHz
Support up to 24bit @ 192Khz with 10ppm low jitter clock
Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Calyx Femto $6.000

DAC with volume control.

Claimed dynamic range of 132dB, THD of 0.0001% and RMS jitter of 500 femto seconds.

USB 24/192 max. Synchronization not specified but probably asynchronous (XMOS).


  • Digital Input: Two Coaxial / Two Optical / Two AES-EBU / BNC / USB
  • Sampling Rate: 44.1kHz ~ 192kHz
  • THD+N Ratio: 0.0003% @ 1kHz
  • SNR: 130 [dB] @ 1kHz
  • Channel Specification: 144 [ dB] @ 1kHz
  • Dynamic Range: 130 [dB] @ 1kHz
  • Output Level(UnBal): 6.8 [V]
  • Output Level(Bal): 2 [V]

Lots of measurements in the user manual.

Calyx DAC 24/192 - 1500.00 USD


D/A Converter IC ESS Technology ES9018 Sabre Reference 32-bit DAC

THD+N 0.0005% @ 1KHz, 0dBFS
SNR 125 dB, A-weighted, 2.2 Vrms
Channel Separation 140 dB @ 1KHz, 130 dB @ 20KHz

Digital Input Resolution and Sample Rate
USB : 24 bits / 44.1K, 48K, 88.2K, 96K, 176.4K, 192KHz
COAX : 32 bits / 44.1K, 48K, 88.2K, 96K, 176.4K, 192KHz

Line Output
Unbalanced stereo, RCA jacks with gold-plated contacts
Balanced stereo, XLR jacks with gold-plated contacts

Output Level 2.2 Vrms (unbalanced), 6.8 Vrms(balanced)
Output Offset 2 mV max


Comes with a ASIO driver for Win

It claims to do 24/192 on OSX without a driver so probably USB class 2 audio.

XMOS USB audio class 2 converter


Cambridge Audio DacMagic Plus £349.95


Twin Wolfson WM8740 24bit DACs used in dual differential configuration
New Anagram Technologies ATF2™ 24-bit/384kHz audio up-sampling / jitter reduction
Optional Digital Preamp mode allowing connection directly to power amp or active speakers
24-bit/96kHz driverless USB Audio 1.0

24-bit/192kHz USB Audio 2.0 with ASIO or kernel streaming modes.

USB class 2 driver for Win

Asynchronous USB transfer
Selectable digital filters - linear phase, minimum phase and steep
Balanced XLR audio output and RCA phono output
Two 24 bit digital inputs (with optical or coaxial for each)
External input for optional BT100 Bluetooth receiver - allows audio to be streamed and up-sampled from any paired Bluetooth device


Cambridge Azur 851C £1200

DAC/CD player/preamplifier



AES, SPDIF (Toslink & coax), USB


24-bit/96kHz driverless USB input
Supports 24-bit/192kHz USB input using a free Cambridge Audio driver

Unclear if this is asynchronous USB

Twin Analog Devices AD1955 current output DACs used in dual differential mode
Up-sampling (to 24-bit/384kHz) using a 32-bit Black Fin DSP


Output: XLR & RCA

Cary Audio DAC-100 US$1295

USB Processor XMOS Asynchronous processing
SP/DIF Input Receiver Wolfson model #WM8805
Digital to Analog Converters 2 X ESS Sabre ES9023
Digital Inputs 5 selectable inputs - (2) coaxial (gold plated), (2) Toslink, (1) USB
Analog Output

RCA analog output (gold plated)
XLR Balanced

Input Sample Rates Accepted* 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96kHz, 176.4kHz, 192kHz
Bit Depths Accepted 16 - 24 bit, LPCM 2-ch audio stream
Power Transformer

Toroidal transformer (Digital Supply)
Toroidal transformer (Analog Supply)

Dynamic Range 112dB
Signal to Noise Ratio 109dB
Noise and Hum -101 dB below rated output
Audio Output Level 2.0V RMS
Frequency Response 20Hz – 22KHz
AC Power Requirements 120 VAC @ 50/60 Hz
240 VAC @ 50/60 Hz
Finish Black powder coated matte cabinet with silver anodized aluminum faceplate standard (black optional)
Weight 21 lbs
Dimensions 3 1/2" H x 17 1/4" W x 15 1/2" D


Chord QuteHD DAC £990


Harmonic distortion: 103 dBV
Signal-to-noise ratio: 115dBV
Dynamic range: 118dBV

Digital inputs:
1 x USB HD with DSD decoding (DoP), 44.1 kHz to 192kHz, 16-32-bit (future 384kHz-ready). USB driver for Win
1x Optical
1x Coaxial 44.1 kHz/ 384kHz-ready, 16-32-bit

Outputs: 2x RCA phono
Power supply: 12v 1A 2.1mm connector. 100-240V - 50/60Hz, 1A wall adapter supplied
Weight: 0.4kg
Dimensions: 160x70x40mm (WxHxD)

Clones Audio Sheva DAC €1799


Digital Inputs: AES/EBU, S/PDIF, BNC,Toslink, I2S and USB
• 2 stereo analog outputs, one on XLR one on RCA
• 100steps fine setting via rotary encoder (digital domain) control main output

Frontpanel controls:
• Dot Matrix display for display of sampling rate, input source, audio level, filter type
• Rotary encoder with push switch

Special features:
• DSD 64/128 and DXD (384KHz 24bit PCM) compatible
• Ultra-Low Phase Noise Femto Master Clock
• Power supply has separate torroidal transformers for Analog and Digital section.

Sampling rates:
• AES/EBU, COAX, OPT up to 192kHz
• USB/I2S: PCM 44.1, 48, 88.2, 96, 176.4, 192, 352.8, 384kHz; DSD64, DSD128

Added 2/2014

CYP AU-D160 £150.00

USB DAC with analogue out (RCA), headphone out and Toslink.


  • Supports standard sampling rates - 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88.2kHz, 96kHz, 192kHz
  • Supports Bits : 16 Bits / 24Bits
  • Power supplied by USB BUS Power
  • The Headphone, R/L and Optical ports will simultaneously support audio output
  • ASIO driver supported
  • USB Audio Class 2.0 with asynchronus mode and driver for Win
  • 500 MIPS, 8 threads, XS1-L1 processor (XMOS)

Electrocompaniet ECD 2 € 2500


Upsampling DAC
inputs: TOSlink 24/96, S/PDIF coaxial, Asynchronous USB 24/192
Output: RCA 2.3Vrms / XLR 4.6mV
Noise floor (20Hz-20kHz): <-145dB
Frequency Response: 0.5Hz-48kHz
THD+N: <0.0005%

Esoteric D-07 $4,800

32 bit stereo D/A converter / 32 bit pre-amp / Dual mono

Analog Output  
Output terminals XLR/RCA
Maximum Output level 2.2Vrms (1 kHz, full scale, 10k&ohm;)
Frequency response
5 Hz to 55 kHz
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N) 115 dB
Total harmonic distortion 0.001% (1kHz)
Digital Input XLR,RCA,Optical, Async USB 24bit/192kHz
Power consumption 7 Watt
Weight 10.4 kg (21 lbs)

Essence HDACC DAC $699

Preamp with HDMI, USB 2, optical and coaxial inputs with A to D Conversion + 2 Analog inputs, Remote Control, OLED Display, & Headphone Amp
All digital inputs support 192kHz sampling rate at up to 24-bit resolution.
Unclear if they have a USB driver for Windows.


Lots of talk on the company’s website about the HDMI input on this DAC allowing you to connect it to a Blu-ray player (yes there are people who still believe in physical media).

BTW: the audio layer of Blu-ray is 24 bits/96 kHz PCM audio.

Added 1/2014

ExaSound E18 $2000

DAC with volume control and headphone out.

  • ES9018 SABRE32 Reference DAC
  • 8 channels at up to 32bit/384kHz (USB only)
  • Asynchronous USB interface
  • Ultra low jitter
  • Galvanic isolation
  • Bit-perfect ASIO Driver Reference-class specifications
  • Automatic sampling rate switching
  • Plays DXD 352.8 kHz


Firestone ILoveTW 299,00 EUR

DAC supporting both adaptive and asynchronous mode


Amplifier Structure : Low pass filter with 2Vrms output
Power Structure : High frequency switching DC-DC regulator
USB Support Format :
16/24 Bit : 44.1kHz / 48kHz / 88.2kHz / 96kHz / 176.4kHz / 192kHz
Digital Interface : Direct I2S data format transmission (MAX support up to 192kHz-24bit over 1 meter CAT-5E cable)
Operation Mode : Support Adaptive and Asynchronous mode for audio stream transmission
DAC Chip : WOLFSON - WM8740
USB Chip : TENOR - TE8802
LPF OP : NS - LM4562
dB-Weighed Frequency response (From 40Hz to 15kHz) : 40Hz +0.02dB, 15kHz -0.12dB
Noise level (1kHz, A-Weighted) : -106.7dB
Dynamic range (1kHz, A-Weighted) : 106.7dB
THD% : 0.012%
Stereo crosstalk : -102.7dB
Housing dimensions : 117 x 80 x 50 mm (D x W x H). Housing only without parts 'sticking out' like connector parts, swithes, etc.
Weight : 286 gram (without the external power supply)


Gold Note DAC 7 € 715.00



24/192 asynchronous 2.0 USB DAC

Driver for Windows
Supported sample rate: 44.1 – 48 – 88.2 – 96 – 176.4 – 192kHz
Supported audio format: all available
Frequency response: 20Hz-20kHz at +/-0.3dB
THD – Total Harmonic Distortion: 0.001% max
Signal to Noise ratio: -115dB
Dynamic response: 125dB

Audio inputs
USB: 24/192 asynchronous USB port
Digital input: two coaxial RCA, one optical TOSLINK

Audio outputs
Analogue output: stereo RCA and XLR balanced
Line output level: 2V RCA and 4V XLR, both fixed

Added 1/2014

Grace Design m903 € 1.545


Headphone amplifier, DAC, monitor controller

  • Balanced and unbalanced analog inputs
  • 24bit/192kHz digital stereo inputs- AES3, S/PDIF, TOSLINK and USB
  • High speed asynchronous USB interface
  • Driverless operation on Windows & Mac up to 96kHz/24bit
  • Supports USB Class 2 audio specification for 192kHz/24bit operation on Windows & Mac (drivers needed for 192kHz operation under Windows)

iBasso D7 US$ 179

Portable USB DAC with volume control and headphone out.

- True 24Bit/192K USB-DAC, supports bit for bit decoding.
- Asynchronous USB transfer
- WM8740 DAC chip
- Up to 24Bit/192K coaxial output
- RCA output and Line out.
- Built-in +/- 5V class A headphone amplfier that run off of USB power
- Full aluminum case
- Measures 60W*93L*22H (mm), and weights 108g
- Comes with USB Cable, and Leather pouch

iFi iDAC US$ 299

Pre-amp with line out and headphone out.

ESS Hyperstream Chipset

Signal to Noise Ratio: >111dB(A)
Dynamic Range(-60dBFs): >111dB(A)
Crosstalk: <-102dB(1KHz)
Total Harmonic Distortion(THD): <0.005%
Jitter: Below measurement limit
Frequency Response: 3Kz to 33KHz + 0.1dB/0.3dB
Headphone section:
Output Power: >150mW(15Ω)
Signal to Noise Ratio: >97dB(A)
Total Harmonic Distortion: <0.003%(400mV/300R)
Noise: <-86dBu(A)
Output Impedance:(Zout): <10Ω
Power Consumption: < 2.5W
Dimensions: 158(l)x68(w)x28(h)mm
Weight: 193g(0.43lbs)


Lector D i g i t u be D S D € 1990

DAC with a tubed output stage (ECC-81/12AT7)

USB support up to 32 bit / 384 kHz

Supports DSD over USB

Driver for Windows



- Spdif IEC-958 as RCA connector / 192 Khz 24 bit

- Spdif IEC-958 as BNC connector / 192 Khz 24 bit

- AES-EBU AES-3 as XLR connector / 192 Khz 24 bit

- Opto toslink digital input / 192 Khz 24 bit

- Asyncronous USB / 384 Khz 32 bit

- Word Clock


Unbalanced output / 2.5 volt 250 ohm


Light Harmonic Da Vinci DAC US$ 20,000


Non oversampling DAC with R2R architecture.

Digital Filers: None.
User selectable Analog Filter: -3dB @ 100K Hz.

THD: Better than 0.01%



  • USB 2.0 interface on standard USB-B connectors. Will accept up to 32 bit PCM at 44.1, 48, 88.2,96 176.4, 192K, 352.8, 384K S/s
  • 1x AES/EBU on 3-pin female XLR connectors. Will accept up to 24 bit PCM at 44.1, 48, 88.2, 96, 176.4K, 192K S/s.
  • 1x SPDIF on one RCA Phono connectors. Will accept up to 24 bit PCM at 44.1, 48, 88.2,96 176.4, 192K S/s

Lindemann USB-DAC 24/192 € 690,-



  • Asynchronous USB interface (USB audio class 2 compatible) based on an XMOS-DSP with 500 Mips. Resolution up to 24 bits and 192 kHz. Three separate clocks for USB, 44.1 kHz (and multiples) and 48 kHz (and multiples).
  • USB class 2 driver for Windows
  • Digital interface controller (WM8805WM8805
    with efficient jitter reduction due to buffer storage and adaptive PLL. Guaranteed jitter level < 50 ps.
  • High-precision master clock with < 2.5 ps timing jitter.
  • DAC WM8742WM8742
  • Minimum phase digital filter with apodizing behaviour.
  • Fully-balanced, analog output stage (ADA4927ADA4927

Linnenberg udc 1 €1260.-

USB 2.0 compatible input

- Jitter free asynchronous data transfer (udc1 as master)

- Bit transparent drivers for Mac and PC operating systems

- Precision master 3ps crystal oscillator

- 24bit/192kHz Burr Brown digital - to - analogue converter

- True class A, fully discrete analogue circuits with zero negative feedback

- Ultra short signal path

- Balanced analogue outputs with PCB-mounted gold-plated Neutrik XLR sockets

- High current output stage



Frequency response 1Hz - 24kHz +0.1dB -0.5dB

Distortion and noise <0.01% 10Hz - 20kHz at -10dB

Output level 4V rms balanced

Output impedance 150 Ohms

Mains voltage 115V, 230V factory set

Dimensions (H x W x D) 55 x 165 x 224 mm


Linnenberg u:c:a €1.190

Pre-amp with USB and SPDIF inputs and RCA and headphone out.

USB input uses the M2tech OEM circuit (Win only) but a new receiver using the XMOS XS1-L1 is planned allowing for full USB Audio Class 2 support (Win, OSX, Linux).


DAC: TI/Burr Brown PCM1794A with TI/BB4192 sample-rate converter.

Upsampling to 192kHz, regardless of input rate. Master clock oscillator with 3ps periodic jitter. Passive I/U conversation with 0.1% precision resistors, zero feedback.


Headphones amplifier: Full discrete construction. NO OPAMPS. NO CHIPS. Volume control with selected blue Alps attenuator. 6.35mm phone jack output. 1000mW continuous sine power output. 1Ohm output impedance. Suitable for 32 – 600 Ohms cans.


Sampling frequencies:

44.1, 48, 88.2, 96, 176.4, 192kHz, (plus 32kHz S/PDIF)


Up to 32bit, (24bit S/PDIF)

Frequency response:

1Hz - 24kHz +0.1dB -0.5dB

Distortion and noise:

<0.01% 10Hz - 20kHz @ -10dB

Output level:

4V rms

Output power:

2 x 500mW continous @ 32 Ohms

Output impedance:

1 Ohm

Mains voltage:

115V, 230V factory set

Dimensions (H x W x D):

55 x 165 x 224 mm


The USB input is not UAC2 (USB Audio Class 2) compliant but uses the M2Tech proprietary drivers for Win and Mac.  A new receiver using the XMOS XS1-L1 is planned allowing for full UAC2 support (Win, OSX, Linux).


Linnenberg VIVACE €1'690

ES9018 ESS Sabre DAC

femto master clock with a clock accuracy of under 0.1ps clock jitter


Sampling frequencies PCM : 44.1, 48, 88.2, 96, 176.4, 192, 352.8, 384 kHz

S/PDIF – input limited to 192 kHz max.
Resolution PCM : 32bit
Resolution DSD : DSD64 (2.8224MHz) and DSD128 (5.6448MHz) over DoP protocol
Master clock jitter : 82 fs (femto seconds)
Frequency response : DC - 24kHz +0.1dB -0.5dB
DC – 70kHz -3dB @192kHz or DSD
Distortion and noise : <0.002% 10Hz - 20kHz @ 0dB;

Dynamic range : 130dB
Output level : 2V rms single ended / 4V rms balanced
Output impedance : 100 Ohm per phase

Mains voltage : 100V - 240V
Power consumption : 9W, < 0.5W stand by
Dimensions (H x W x D) : 51 x 165 x 226 mm

Added 2/2014

Luxman DA-06 USD $6000

DSD 1-bit @ 2.8224 MHz, 5.6448 MHz (when used with an ASIO 2.1 DSD driver) over USB.
PCM 16, 20 & 24-bit @ 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz, 176.4 kHz, 192 kHz (when used with a PCM driver)

Driver for Windows

RCA and XLR out.


M2Tech hiFace DAC €220

UAC2 compliant async USB DAC up to 32 bit / 352 kHz



Input 1 x USB A type male
Output 1 x 3.5mm stereo jack socket


Sampling Frequency: 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88.2kHz, 96kHz, 176.4khZ, 192kHz, 352.8kHz, 384kHz

Resolution: 16 up to 32 bit

Output voltage: 2.0Vrms @10kOhms
Frequency response: 5-22kHz (fs=44.1kHz) / 5-150kHz (fs=384kHz)
THD+N: 112dB (@ 1kHz, A-weighted)

Dimensions: 8.8(d) x 1.4(h) x 2(w)

Power Supply: 5V DC from USB bus

Matrix Audio X-Sabre US$1,099.95



  • Asynchronous USB
  • DSD×64 (2.8224MHz) / DSD×128 (5.6448MHz)over USB
  • Sample rates supported USB: 16-32Bit @ 44.1kHz/48kHz/88.2kHz/96kHz/176.4kHz/192kHz/352.8kHz/384kHz
  • Sample rates supported Coax/AES-EBU: 16-24Bit @ 44.1kHz/48kHz/88.2kHz/96kHz/176.4kHz/192kHz
  • Low latency ASIO/KS drivers supported
  • Drivers available for: Windows XP/ Windows Vista/ Windows 7
  • 4 ESS 9018 Sabre Reference DAC per channel


Meridian Explorer € 295

Small portable USB DAC with analog volume control on the headphone out, fixed line out combined with Toslink out.

  • USB receiver by XMOS
  • Driver for Win
  • DAC PCNM5102

Metrum Acoustics Hex € 2185

Non oversampling dac. 

Dual mono, 8 Dacs pro channel in differential mode. 


Inputs:   2x optical Toslink, Coaxial  1x BNC and 1x RCA. 

Optical 44 - 96 kHz sampling rate .   
Coaxial , USB  and  AES/EBU: 44 - 192 kHz  sampling rate.

AES/EBU module optional (€ 168.00)  

USB module optional ( € 168.00).

The USB input is not UAC2 (USB Audio Class 2) compliant but uses the M2Tech proprietary drivers for Win and Mac.

Output voltage:             
RCA : 2 Volt RMS  full scale.   
XLR:   4 Volt RMS  full scale 

Jitter: < 35 pico Seconds

Frequency response:

1Hz  -  20 khz  - 2.5 dB    44.1 kHz sampling rate.  
1Hz  -  65 kHz  - 3dB      192 kHz sampling rate.

Distortion:  0.03 % THD

Noise :-130 dB related to 2 Volt RMS output


Metrum Acoustics Octave MKII € 1075,-

Non oversampling dac
15 VA internal power supply
1x optical, 1x coaxial, 1x USB (option)
2x gold RCA connectors
Max voltage output: 2 Volt RMS max.
Slewing rate: 35 Volt/uS
Frequency range: 1Hz 0dB untill half samplingrate -3dB.
Distortion: < 0,04 % THD
Noise : -120 dB / 16 bits -125 dB / 24 bits.

Meitner Audio MA-1 DAC $7,000

  • XMOS USB 2.0 High Speed ​​Interface: 16, 24 bit
    sampling rate up to 192kHz
    Thesycon USB audio class 2 driver for Win
  • Supports DSD over USB (DoP)
  • Available Digital Inputs:
    • 1x USB
    • 1x AES/EBU (XLR)
    • 2x SPDIF (RCA)
    • 2x TOSLINK (Optical)
  • Word lengths up to 24bit, and sample frequencies up to 192kHz are
    supported on all digital inputs.
  • Analog Outputs:
    • Balanced (XLR)
    Output Line Level (0dBfs signal on AES/EBU input): 4.6Vrms
    Output Impedance: 300Ω
    • Un-Balanced (RCA)
    Output Line Level (0dBfs signal on AES/EBU input): 2.3Vrms
    Output Impedance: 150Ω

Musiland MD30 DAC/Headphone amp

  • USB 2.0 High Speed ​​Interface: 16, 24, 32Bit sampling rate up to 192kHz
  • Coaxial RCA, BNC coaxial, fiber optic, AES: 16, 24Bit sampling depth up to 192kHz. Support MMDI instruction
  • MULINK high-definition digital interface (proprietary i2s): 16, 24, 32Bit sampling depth up to 192kHz. Support MMDI instruction.
  • Clock jitter (44.1kHz): S/PDIF less than 30PS, USB, MULINK less than 20PS

Mytek Stereo192-DSD-DAC USD $1,695.00


  • Asynchronous USB2 with driver (Rigisystems )up to 192 kHz
  • Asynchronous Firewire 400/800 (TC Electronics)
  • Conversion: 32bit, PCM up to 192k, 64xDSD, 128xDSD.
  • Dynamic Range: 128dB (ESS Sabre chipset in 8 mono to 2 stereo config.) THD DAC: -110dB.
  • Digital Audio Inputs: SPDIF, AES/EBU, Toslink all up to 192k single wire.
    (64xDSD and 128XDSD SDIF DSD interface on Mastering Version).
  • Clock: Internal Clock Generator (10ps jitter), Wordclock In and Out, or sync to incoming digital audio input with low jitter JET (tm) PLL.
  • Internal Async Hardware Upsampling- 16bit 44.1k etc. can be optionally upsampled prior to conversion to 192k/24bit with clock jitter eliminated.
  • Transparent, 1dB stepped programmable analog attenuator, separate for main out and headphones.

Various models including one with headphone and pre-amp function.

A tread on a forum including Michal from Mytek.


Micheal Galusha did some measurements. He found some spikes at 12,24 and 36kHz.

KSTR found the same results.

NAD M51 Direct Digital DAC €1799

35-bit 844kHz DAC and Digital Preamp

Running at 108MHz, the M51 resamples the incoming pulse code modulated (PCM) signal and converts it to a pulse width modulation signal (PWM) with a sampling rate of 844kHz. Operating in a differential mode with double precision, the M51 has state-of-the-art specifications for low noise and freedom from distortion. The extreme headroom afforded by the 35-bit architecture allows for a DSP-based volume control that does not reduce resolution. Even with 24-bit high definition signals, the output can be attenuated by 66dB (very, very quiet) before bit truncation begins.


Rated Distortion (THD+N with AES 17 filter) <0.0005% (0dBFS)
IMD Distortion 0.0001%
Signal/Noise Ratio <-125dB (ref. 0dBFS 2V out)
Channel Separation >-115dB (ref. 0dBFS Volume -1dB)
Sample Rate 32kHz to 192kHz (USB and digital S/PDIF)
Frequency Response ±0.5dB (ref. 20Hz - 96kHz sample rate)
Output Level 2V (ref. input 0dBFS)


  • SPDIF Coaxial x 1
  • Optical x 1
  • HDMI x 2 (stereo only)
  • USB Audio Codec 2.0: asynchronous 24/192 support


  • HDMI Video Out (3D video pass through)
  • Analogue Unbalanced and Balanced
Measurements by Stereophile

Nagra HD DAC €19.900

Added 1/2014

Onkyo A-9000R € 1.699

Integrated stereo amplifier

3 analog line in + phone (MM/MC)

Digital inputs: AES/EBU, SPDIF (coax and optical), 24/192 async USB


Output: 140 Watt/channel

Peachtree Audio Grand Pre control center US$ 2995

DAC/preamp/headphone amp with volume control and defeatable tubed output.


Manufacturers description:

  • Reference ESS Sabre32 DAC knocks jitter down to <1 picosecond for accurate sound reproduction
  • Galvanic Isolation eliminates noise generated by switching power supplies in source components
  • New asynchronous I2S 24/192 USB input provides the best connection between computer and DAC
  • VCA gain control for minimal noise and cross talk replaces the commonly used potentiometer
  • New Bascom King tube buffer rejuvenates poor recordings and compressed audio

Perreaux Audiant DP32 $2.895

Digital Inputs: 1 USB (asynchronous 24/192)
2 Coaxial (RCA)
2 Optical (Toslink)
Digital to Analogue Converter: ESS Technology Sabre³² Reference ES9018 32-bit DAC
Input Word Length (maximum): 32-bit (AES/EBU, Coaxial, Optical)
24-bit (USB)
Input Sample Rate (maximum): 192kHz (all inputs)
Analogue Inputs: 1 Balanced/Unbalanced (selectable)
1 Unbalanced Line/Home Theatre (selectable)



Phase Tech HD-7D192

USB audio class 2 compliant DAC with USB receiver by XMOS.

Inputs: SPDIF (optical/coax) / asynchronous USB

Outputs: AES/EBU, ciax, I2S

Word sync out.

Price: Yen 249,900

Primare DAC30 € 2350

USB audio class 2 compliant DAC with USB receiver by XMOS.

24 / 192 Khz
Crystal DSD DAC CS4398 (BD32)
Fully balanced analogue output stage (BD32)
Inputs: 1x asynchronous USB-B, 1x AES/EBU, 3x Optical, 3x Coax S/PDIF

Outputs: 1 pair XLR and 1 pair RCA (both 4,3V)

PS Audio NuWave $995

It allows the user to select 192kHz upsampling or bypass all upsampling.

Input: USB (XMOS), SPDIF (RCA), Toslink

Output: RCA and XLR


  • One USB-I2S Module plugged into the Analog Board
  • Golledge high-quality XOs at 22.5792 and 24.576MHz
  • Asahi Kasei AKM4430 DAC
  • Low-noise 3.3V LDOs by Demain and Oneoclock, or ADP151
  • RCA (phono) stereo output
  • Headers for alternative power supply designs
  • Unpopulated connectors for RS232, LCD etc.
  • Bootloader buttons so you don't have to pop open the box to reprogram the MCU
  • You must provide an USB 2.0 mini-B cable. It is not included.

Open source drivers for UAC2 and ASIO


Resonessence Labs Invicta $3.995 USD

  • ESS SABRE32 24/192kHz DAC chip
  • Digital filtering DSP and controls via Xilinx MicroBlaze FPGA soft processor cores
  • Ultra-low phase noise oscillator master clock
  • 1 x Toslink input and 1 x Toslink output
  • 2 x BNC digital input
  • 1 x AES/EBU input
  • USB - asynchronous mode, Thesycon Asynchronous USB Audio 2.0 drivers for Win
  • DSD over USB (firmware 4.0.0)
  • All digital inputs are transformer coupled, galvanically isolated
  • 2 x headphone outputs on front panel, simultaneous drive and levels can be independently set
  • The SD Card source provides a scrollthrough list of song titles found on the card.
    WAV, AIFF, FLAC, DFF and DSD data formats of up to 384kS/, 24 bit word width are supported.
    Direct Stream Digital (DSD) is supported on the SD Card via the DSF and DFF file formats.
  • Low noise OLED screen
  • Firmware upgradeable (FPGA)
  • High quality AD797 J-FET operational amplifier output stage

The manual contains a lot of measurements.

Each measurement is accompanied by a short explanation, very instructive.

This DAC is linear up to 130 dB. An excellent values allowing for minimal full 22 bits resolution.


Rasteme Rudd14 56,700- Yen

24/192 asynchronous USB DAC.

USB receiver XMOS.

Schiit Bitfrost $449.00

Inputs: Coaxial SPDIF, Optical SPDIF, USB (optional)
Input Capability: up to 24/192 for all inputs
Input Receiver, SPDIF: Crystal Semiconductor CS8416
Input Receiver, USB: C-Media CM6631. Drivers for Windows 8, 7, Vista, and XP


D/A Conversion IC: AKM4399, no upsampling
Analog Summing, Filtering: Fully Discrete, JFET differential topology


Output: RCA (single-ended)
Output Impedance: 75 ohms

Sonore exD DSD DAC US$ 1195

Ultra low jitter local master clock <3pS
True asynchronous mode operation
USB Audio Class 2.0 compliant
PCM playback up to 192kHz
DSD playback of DSD64 and DSD128
Compatible with DoP v1 specification
Custom made USB to DSD and PCM module
Support for Mac OS X without special driver (10.6 and 10.7), support Audirvana Plus "Direct" and "Integer" modes
Support for Linux without special driver (Alsa version 1.0.24 or later)
Support for Windows XP, Vista and Win 7 (32 and 64 bit), driver (WDM and ASIO) will be provided

RCA unbalanced outputs
XLR balanced outputs
Output impedance: <50ohm unbalanced, <100ohm balanced
Output voltage: 2V Unbalanced, 4V Balanced


T+A DAC 8 £1890

DAC with volume control (defeatable) and headphone out.
Supports both USB audio class 1 and 2.
For USB Audio Class 2 it is possible to select either synchronous or asynchronous transmission; a special driver is required for this.



D/A converter

32-Bit, 384 kHz Sigma Delta, 8-times oversampling, double-mono-quadruple

Analogue filter

3rd order phase linear Besselfilter, switchable 60 kHz or 120 kHz

Frequency response

2 Hz - 20 / 22 kHz  (44.1 / 48.0 kSps)

2 Hz - 40 kHz  (88.2 / 96.0 kSps)

2 Hz - 80 kHz  (176.4 / 192.0 kSps)

Total harmonic distortion

< 0,001 %

Signal noise (A)

116 dB

Channel separation

110 dB

Analogue outputs

coaxial (Cinch)

2,5 Veff / 22 Ohm fixed. 0 ... 2,5 Veff variable

Symetrical (XLR)

5,0 Veff / 22 Ohm fixed. 0 ... 5,0 Veff variable

Digital output

1 x coax, IEC 60958 (CDDA/LPCM)

Digital inputs

SP/DIF (16 - 24 Bit):

4 x co-ax, 1 x BNC, 1 x AES/EBU up to 192/24, 1 x TOS-Link up to 96/24

1 x USB with USB Audio Class 1 (USB full Speed) up to 96/24, adaptive mode

and USB Audio Class 2 (USB high Speed) up to 192/24 asynchronous mode (drivers available)

Teac UD-H01 DAC £299.00

Main Features

  • USB Audio Class2 High-speed Input from PC/MAC (Tenor 8802)
  • 32-bit/192kHz Dual D/A Convertors (BurrBrown 1795 x 2)
  • Up-conversion to 32bit/192kHz
  • Supports Asynchronous Transfer Mode
  • Toroidal-core-Power Transformer
  • Detachable AC Socket
  • Headphone Out with Volume Control
  • Aluminium Front Panel

General Specifications:

  • USB Input: x 1 (USB2.0)
  • Digital Audio Inputs: x 2 (Coaxial, Optical)
  • Balanced Audio Output: x 1 (XLR, 1-GND, 2=Hot, 3=Cold)
  • Audio Output: x 1 (RCA)
  • Headphone Out: x 1 (6.3mm)
  • Input Signal Sampling Rate: 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88.2kHz, 96kHz, 176.4kHz, 192kHz
  • Operation:230V AC, 50kHz
  • Dimensions (W x H x D): 215mm x 55mm x 215mm

Totaldac D1 €6500


R2R DAC with volume control and headphone out.

Also available with active 2 or 3 way crossover.


  • 192KHz asynchronous XMOS USB, optical, RCA and AES-EBU digital inputs, selectable from a remote control.
  • 3.3Vrms max RCA, XLR analog output and 32ohm-600ohm headphone amplifier.
  • digital volume control, adjusted by a remote control and an OLED display.
  • phase polarity selected by remote control.
  • non-oversampling FIR digital filter activated or disactivated by remote control.

Wadia 121 US$ 1,299.00

DAC/digital preamplifier with digital inputs, balanced analog outputs, digital volume control, and a headphone out.

  • 32-bit/1.4MHz up sampling using Wadia's proprietary DigiMaster algorithm and filtering technology
  • All inputs accept up to 24-bit/192kHz input data rates
  • Asynchronous USB input (driver for Win)
  • Wadia DirectConnect™ analog output with 32-bit Digital Volume Control
  • Digital Inputs: AES/EBU (XLR), Coaxial (RCA & BNC), Toslink Optical, USB B

Woo Audio WA7 Fireflies $999

Class-A tube headphone amplifier with asynchronous 24/192 USB Audio Class 2 input.

  • C-Media 6631 USB chip
  • TI PCM5102A 32-bit DAC chip
  • Distortion: <0.03%
  • S/N: 95dB

Wyred 4 Sound - DAC2 $1,499.00

  • ESS Reference audio (ES9018) 32 bit DAC
  • Automatic oversampling for precise output filtering
  • Fully balanced design with balanced and unbalanced outputs
  • Upgradable Digital, Output, and USB boards (designed for future improvements)
  • VFD display for input, sample rate, volume control, and configuration viewing
  • Remote control
  • Defeatable - 32 bit volume control
  • 2x Coax inputs
  • 2x Toslink inputs
  • 1x AES/EBU input
  • 1x Balanced I2S input via HDMI cable (not standard HDMI cable format)
  • 24-bit 192kHz Asynchronous USB input
  • Proprietary drivers for 32/64 bit Windows XP, Vista, 7 and Mac OS 10.4, 10.5 ,10.6